The origin of food continues to grow in importance in the minds of many consumers. Organic, locally-grown produce is more widely available that ever before, and the term of “farm-to-fork” has extended beyond status as a trend found in dining out to become a philosophy that many consumer require as essential understanding of the supply chain of the food they purchase and consume.
Concerns about the practices surrounds the growth, harvest and production of cacao have been widely publicized for decades. Sustainability of the industry in the midst of ongoing concerns of shortages in supply are magnified by increasing scrutiny of the farming practices used from both an environmental and human rights perspective.
While the cocoa and chocolate is a multi-billion dollar global industry, many cacao farmers remain poor, living in poor conditions, and earning a very small income which must support their family, the farm, and its staff. Many farmers have never tasted, nor can they afford, the finished chocolate product that is the result of their careful cultivation and harvest of the cacao tree. The cocoa famer is “is right at the bottom of a multi-layered global supply chain which sees cocoa transformed from bean to bar, and as such, the fundamental cocoa-nomics are firmly against him. Traders, processors, exporters and manufacturers all demand their margin, and for everyone to make a profit, the system dictates that (the farmer) who has little or no bargaining power — receives the bare minimum for his bag of beans.” (CNN)
In response to consumer concern about origins of food, ethical sourcing, and human rights concerns in the farming industry in developing countries, fair trade labeling organizations such as FINE were created and support the work of fair trade certifiers such as Fairtrade International, Fairtrade Labeling Associations International and Fair Trade USA. The World Fair Trade Organizations. “The World Fair Trade Organization (WFTO) believes that trade must benefit the most vulnerable and deliver sustainable livelihoods by developing opportunities especially for small and disadvantaged producers. Recurring global economic crises and persistent poverty in many countries confirm the demand for a fair and sustainable economy locally and globally. Fair Trade is our response. “ (WFTO)
“WFTO and its members believe that the path to Fair Trade means changing the practices in the supply chain to follow the 10 Principles of Fair Trade. To be able to deliver the promise of Fair Trade, practices from the production to sale of products should pass the global Fair Trade Standard set by WFTO. Fair Trade scrutiny should not only focus on the production sphere but also on the buying behavior of organisations. This is because for WFTO the burden of proving Fair Trade compliance covers the entire supply chain, and is not the sole responsibility of producers. “
Companies such as Theo Chocolate, in Seattle were created in response to serving a consumer desire for delicious chocolate that is sourced within the guidelines of fair trade.
I had a chance to tour Theo Chocolate last week and see the entire process from start to finish. In speaking with their employee partners, it is clear that the company takes great care in handcrafting their product in small batches with an eye to the product and a socially responsible process from bean to bar. According to their website Theo was “the first organic and Fair Trade chocolate factory in the country, our founding principle is that the finest artisan chocolate in the world can (and should) be produced in an entirely ethical, sustainable fashion. All of our ingredients are carefully screened and 3rd party verified to ensure they meet our standards for social and environmental responsibility.”
Theo is Fair Trade certified by IMO, http://www.fairforlife.org. who “guarantee(s) producers have been paid a price that enables positive economic growth for the individual and the region.” (Theo) Fair for Life states that the organization “offers operators of socially responsible projects a solution for brand neutral third-party inspection and certification in initial production, manufacturing and trading. It combines strict social and fair trade standards with adaptability to local conditions. The system is designed for both food and non-food commodities (like cosmetics, textiles or tourist services).”
Fair Trade organizations such as IMO, are focused largely on the cooperative groups to which cocoa farmers belong. The cooperatives ensure that farmers receive fair prices for their cocoa, access to credit so they can invest in their farms, and protects against unfair labor practices and child labor. Review and certification is targeted to the cooperative with a focus on empowerment of the farmers in the cooperative through participation, training and development; economic development through fair pricing and wages; social responsibility, and environmental stewardship. While each organization is slightly different their principles are largely very similar and a this detailed example is representative of many Fair Trade Organizations. FTUSA_Standards_Principles
Starbucks Coffee Company has taken a different approach by implementing Ethical Sourcing enterprise-wide and Cocoa Practices specifically for the acquisition of tens of millions of dollars in cocoa annually. According to their website, the Starbucks “approach to buying cocoa, is… based on a commitment to ensuring a long-term supply of high-quality, ethically sourced cocoa while contributing positively to the environment and to cocoa-farming communities. Our Cocoa Practices program seeks to verify the supply chain for the cocoa beans used in our beverages, with inspections performed by independent verifiers overseen by SCS Global Services. Our Cocoa Practices program is designed to understand the supply chain for cocoa beans and provide valuable sustainability information to producers and purchasers alike.”
The Starbucks “Cocoa Practices program has helped us identify key areas for improvement and increased our understanding of the dynamics of cocoa farming in West Africa. ”
Unlike Fair Trade, Starbucks Ethical Sourcing and Cocoa Practices are targeted directly to the farmer, not just the cooperative, no matter the size of their operation.
Starbucks uses a detailed audit found here and though a team of highly trained third-party verification teams works year-round to ensure that very pound of cocoa they purchase meets their very strict standards for ethical sourcing. Their standards are high, extending beyond broad statements of protection of workers and include requirements for freedom of association, paid time off, access to education and health care, and non-discrimination. Several requirements of the program have a zero-tolerance policy for non-compliance including forced labor, child labor, and the use of trafficked labor. Additionally, for children over the age of 14 who are permitted to work, must have work schedules that do not conflict with school hours.
I was fortunate enough to spend time with the leader than oversees cocoa sourcing and acquisition and the Cocoa Practices program for Starbucks last week. He shared with me that the enterprise focus on ethical sourcing of cocoa and coffee in particular was intended to be “disruptive” from the very beginning. Their goal is to do for cocoa what they did for coffee which was to ensure that 100% of all coffee beans met their strict standards for sourcing. The goal is not just for Starbucks to be 100%, but also to change to expectations of consumers for the sourcing of the coffee and cocoa they consume, as well as increase the visibility to and accountability of every company that sources coffee and cocoa around the world.
Starbucks is extremely transparent, and published the scorecards used to evaluate each of their farmers here. As I met with our leader of this program I was able to go into the database that contains the information for every farmer from which the company buy cocoa. I saw single owner-operated units as small as a hectare, family run operation of 10 hectares and much larger operations. The expectations for each are the same, and the level of detail that the company uses to track every aspect of the individuals, family members and employees is staggering and includes perceptions about well-being, potential vulnerability to do availability of fresh water and cooling for the home, along with detailed question about the business and finances.
I asked about scores and what constitutes “passing” or “failing” and I was told that zero-tolerance, is exactly that, but beyond that there is no pass or fail as the company sees it as their obligation to provide support and resources to the individual farmers who may be struggling in an area to ensure they can sustain their livelihood and the supply of cocoa for the long-term.
While Theo and Starbucks have taken very different approaches, arguably their individual decisions on how to approach protecting cocoa farmers and their workers seems appropriate for the scale of their business and long-term business needs. Theo has shown consumers that gourmet chocolate can be produced from bean-to-bar in small batches using only organic and fair trade cocoa and ingredients. Starbucks, on of the world’s largest consumers of cocoa has put into place ethical sourcing practices that are designed to protect the long-term supply of cocoa and are also in support of the health and well-being of the individual farmer. Both companies command a premium price for their product, but based on the history of slavery and child-labor in the cocoa trade it is hard to argue that the premium price is not worth it. In fact, from a sustainability perspective for both the environment and the human race I wish more companies would be as bold and more consumers would be as informed.
Chocolate, Social Responsibility and Fair Trade Whinney, Joe, “Chocolate, Social Responsibility, and Fair Trade” (2011). Speakers & Events. Paper 1400.http://digitalcommons.spu.edu/av_events/1400
Fair For Life http://www.fairforlife.org/pmws/indexDOM.php?client_id=fairforlife&page_id=home
Fair Trade USA http://fairtradeusa.org/certification/producers/cocoa
Motavalli, Jim. Sweet dreams: Seattle’s Theo is a fair trade version of Willy Wonka’s chocolate factory.(Eating Right) E, Nov-Dec, 2007, Vol.18(6), p.42(2)
Percival, Matt. From Bean to Bar: Why Chocolate Will Never Taste The Same Again. February 28.2014 Web. http://edition.cnn.com/2014/02/13/world/africa/cocoa-nomics-from-bean-to-bar/
SBC Global Services http://www.scsglobalservices.com/starbucks-cocoa-practices?scscertified=1
Theo Chocolate https://www.theochocolate.com/
For this blogpost, I was curious to explore the idea of terroir as it pertains to chocolate. “Terroir” is, literally, the French word for soil or land and can be defined as “the conditions in which a food is grown or produced and that give the food its unique characteristics.” [i] According to Kristy Leissle, “cocoa beans, like wine grapes, produce distinct flavors depending on strain and terroir, and showcasing that flavor is the goal of single origin chocolate.” [ii]
Of course, as discussed throughout our chocolate class (Karla Martin, personal communication) the final taste of chocolate is determined by many factors. The taste can be influenced by the type of cacao and where it is grown but can also be influenced by the type of cacao tree, how the cacao beans are fermented and dried and how it is processed. How is it roasted? Is it conched and for how long? Are other ingredients added? A description of the kinds of factors that influence chocolate flavor can be found here: [iii] But despite those questions, I was curious to explore what differences we would taste in chocolate bars whose beans were sourced from different countries.
So I took myself off to Whole Foods in Dedham – one of the largest Whole Foods I have ever visited. There I faced an enormous and bewildering display of chocolate: 3 full banks of shelves – ½ of an entire aisle – entirely devoted to chocolate, none of it mass market. I employed the following criteria to restrict my choices:
- Must be at least 70% chocolate
- No added ingredients other than sweetener, vanilla, emulsifier
- Package must state the cacao is sourced from a certain geographic area.
I ended up with 7 bars of chocolate to taste, from 6 different areas: Ghana, Dominican Republic Madegascar, Tanzania, Haiti, and Ecuador. Only one was made in the country of origin. The others were produced in Germany, Massachusetts, Belgium, and Switzerland.
What I found at Whole Foods bears out Leissle’s statement that even though the majority of the world’s cocoa comes from West Africa, most single single origin chocolate bars are sourced from other regions. She suggests that this is likely because the quality of West African chocolate is often not high. The one bar I found from West Africa was from Ghana. Ghanaian chocolate, which is regulated by a national Cocoa Board is considered the best of the West African chocolate. (Leissle). Tight regulation may be the reason that it is higher quality, but it can also make it difficult for manufacturers to source enough chocolate from Ghana to create single-origin bars. Another issue with West African chocolate is that it is often tainted in the public mind by allegations of child and slave labor, which could affect sales.
Interestingly, all of these chocolates bore a special certification of one kind or another, indicating that the buyer was not just buying chocolate to eat, but also contributing to social good with the purchase. Certifications included Fair trade, Fair for life, direct trade, whole trade. As Ndongo S. Sylla suggests in his critique of Fair Trade, it is as if “poverty itself has become a commodity. Through this label, it is the idea and the approach that are being sold…The irony is that the new advocates of the poor unknowingly work for the rich, being themselves part of this category.” [iv] The packaging suggests that with your purchase you have become a “compassionate consumer” as Martin and Sampeck [v] label it, and so you can feel good about yourself because you are meeting the needs of others when you spend your money, often justifying a higher price. Of course, one doesn’t know how much of that premium actually reaches the farmer. It’s almost a side benefit to one’s good work in buying the chocolate, that it may also be delicious.
All but two of the bars were organic, and this also seems to play into the idea of doing good with your dollars. The packaging materials themselves are organic-looking/earthy-crunchy with non-shiny paper and arty graphics. Julie Guthman, in her history of the development of organic salad mix (“yuppie chow”), says “eating organic salad mix connoted a political action in its own right, legitimizing a practice that few could afford.”[vi] This notion of eating as a political action could also be applied to organic chocolate. However, as Williams and Eber point out in Raising the Bar [vii], organic chocolate isn’t necessarily the best chocolate. Furthermore, organic certification is an expensive proposition for a small cocoa farmer because the land must come out of production for 3 years and getting a certificate costs money. The premium that organic chocolate can demand tends not to come to the farmer. Furthermore, much cocoa actually is in essence organic, though not certified as such, because many farmers cannot afford pesticides. So how much good are you really doing by buying organic chocolate?
For this project, I convened an after-dinner tasting panel of 3 foodies: myself (a prolific cook-gardener), my friend Emily (an artist/social worker who generally prefers milk chocolate to dark chocolate), and my husband John (a field engineer by day and musician/poet in the off hours). We discussed a common convention of tasting, guided by Barb Stuckey’s article on How the Pros Taste. [viii] She suggests the importance of using other senses in tasting, such as sight, smell, taste, and texture or mouth feel. We placed each sample on a white plate to judge the the color, slowly sniffed it to sense the aroma, snapped it with our teeth to judge crispness, and then placed it on our tongue to savor slowly and see what flavors emerged. We sampled in order of lightest (70%) to darkest (85%). After sampling each, we took a look at the package to see what information we could glean. Our method of palate cleansing after each taste was perhaps unorthodox, but delicious: water, plain crackers, and red wine that had been aged in bourbon barrels.
Divine 70% “Intensely Rich” chocolate. Ghana
Color: very dark brown. Aroma: rich and lovely. Snap: Nice, crisp.
Savoring notes: we found it sweet but not overly so. Delicious. You could taste the vanilla. It melted slowly with a lingering flavor and was very smooth. John, our poet, said he could taste the savannah. The finish was very earthy. However, at the end it felt a bit chalky and dry, as if it sucked the moisture out of one’s mouth. We decided to call this kind of finish “sere.” “Sere” is defined as dry or arid. [ix]
Judgment: We all liked this chocolate very much at first taste, though we weren’t fond of the sere finish.
Ingredient %: 70% cacao. 19g fat, 11 g sugar. Ingredients: cocoa mass, sugar, cocoa butter, sunflower lecithin, vanilla.
Certifications: Non gmo project, halal, fairtrade.
Price: $3.00 for 3.5 oz. (It was on sale; normally $3.99).
Other Notes: Divine is made with cocoa beans from a co-op of small-holder farmers in Ghana and is produced in Germany. The package is decorated with Adinkra symbols which are traditional West African motifs. The inside of the package congratulates the buyer for supporting cocoa farmers and displays the photograph of an individual cocoa farmer and tells her story. It also displays the AYA symbol, representing Endurance and Peaceful Coexistence. It feels like you are invited into the community of cocoa farmers by purchasing this chocolate.
Taza Chocolates 70% stone ground chocolate. “perfectly unrefined” Dominican Republic
Color: less dark and rich looking than the Divine. Aroma: less intense than Divine, but nice. Less crisp than Divine.
Savoring notes: Tasted sweeter than Divine and the initial taste was less intense at the start. Not buttery and smooth but textural, (unsurprising since it is stone ground and unconched.) Very pleasant to savor, though the texture was distracting. Overall a simpler taste than the Divine. The finish was also less dry (sere) at the end.
Judgment: We all thought this chocolate was o.k., but not a favorite, mostly because of the grittiness and lack of complexity.
Ingredient %: 70% cacao. 14 g. fat, 11 g. sugar. Ingredients: organic cacao beans, organic cane sugar, organic cocoa butter, organic vanilla beans.
Certifications: USDA Organic, non GMO project, Gluten Free, Vegan, Direct Trade
Price: $4.75, 2.5 oz.
Other notes: Packaging is simple non glossy paper, quite attractive. It makes a big point of being unrefined and minimally processed with bold flavor and texture. It is made in Somerville, MA
Madecasse, Madagascar. 70% heirloom Madagascar cocoa, “bright with a fruity finish.”
Color: not as dark as the first two. Aroma: strong, rich and deep. You could almost taste the chocolate as you smelled it. A reasonable snap.
Savoring notes: A bit granular. Not as smooth as the divine. Lingering, complex flavor. Our poet musician called it “beautiful birds” and then described the taste as “symphonic” and “well-orchestrated.” The finish had a little vanilla, it was luscious all the way through, and there was no chalky dryness or “sere” quality at the end.
Judgment: Our favorite so far.
Ingredient %: Fat 16 g, Sugar 10 g. Ingredients: cocoa beans, sugar, cocoa butter, sunflower lecithin, natural vanilla.
Certifications: Fair Trade, Fair for life.
Price: $4.50 for 2.64 oz.
Other notes: The packaging is lovely. Simple yet colorful with a drawing of an opened cocoa pod (revealing the white flesh and the cocoa beans), nestled with leaves, cocoa beans and pieces of chocolate bar. On the back, a map of Africa/Madagascar and the story of the chocolate. Madecasse was started by peace corps volunteers in Madagascar who decided to make chocolate “as a vehicle for social impact.” This bar is not only sourced from Madegascar, it is made there. More than some of the other packaging, this bar seemed to stress the deliciousness of the chocolate, as much as their mission.
Whole Foods 72% “Tanzania Schoolhouse Project Cacao.”
Color: quite dark, as dark as the divine chocolate. Aroma: rich. Bite: soft.
Savoring notes: Smooth and delicious. No “sere” finish at the end. We couldn’t say exactly what we were tasting…just that it was delicious.
Judgment: The favorite of Emily, the person who typically doesn’t like dark chocolate. John and I still preferred Madecasse, though we did enjoy this bar.
Ingredient %: 17 g fat and 10 g of sugar. Ingredients: Organic chocolate liquor, organic cane sugar, organic cocoa butter. No lecithin and no vanilla.
Certifications: vegetarian, USDA organic, Kosher, Whole trade
Price: $6.00 for 3.5 oz.
Other notes: Somehow we didn’t expect this to taste good – perhaps because it seemed to be more about supporting Tanzanian schoolhouses and doing “good works” and less about the chocolate. And perhaps because it was made by the big business of Whole Foods. The packaging wasn’t as appealingly earthy/arty as the others. It was glossier, with photographs of Tanzanian people and cocoa trees rather than compelling graphics. This bar is made in Belgium. We were also surprised to find that we didn’t miss the vanilla in this bar. Interestingly, the Tanzania schoolhouse Project website link which describes their charitable projects makes no mention of this chocolate. The packaging also doesn’t indicate what amount of proceeds are donated to the project. My cynical side thinks Whole Foods may be using the Tanzanian project as a marketing tool, since there is so little transparency about what they are really doing in Tanzania.
Apotheker’s “classic dark”, bee-sweetened 76% chocolate, Dominican Republic.
Color: This chocolate was the darkest so far. Aroma: wonderful – very rich. Bite: very soft.
Savoring notes: The honey taste was predominant at first and the chocolate tasted very different from the other ones. Although the texture was not smooth, it was enjoyable, more so than the grittiness of the Taza. The taste felt slow to open up, perhaps because it was less sweet, but when it did open was nice. The honey taste lingered throughout and the finish had no “sere” at all. This was definitely a different kind of chocolate and we found it enjoyable.
Ingredient %: 18 g fat, 6g of sugar. Ingredients: Organic Cacao liquor, organic cacao butter, organic raw honey, sunflower lecithin, organic vanilla beans.
Certifications and claims: direct trade, family owned, gluten, dairy and soy free, single origin, biodynamic, hand-crafted.
Price: $6.50 for 2.5 oz.
Other notes: The package graphics and the name hint at being like something from an apothecary or a general store, like it might be good for you. It has an old-fashioned, early 20 century look that might draw you in on the basis of sentimentality. It also proclaims in large letters that it is organic raw honey sweetened – so it can draw in people who are drawn to health foods. This bar is made in Dorchester, MA by a husband/wife team who also make soaps, hot cocoa, and bee-sweetened mallows. This was our second bar made with Dominican cocoa and quite different from the first.
Taza “perfectly unrefined” 84% Dark chocolate, sourced from Haiti.
Color: quite dark. Aroma: very earthy and perhaps a little sharp. Bite: hard but not crisp
Savoring notes: Like the other Taza bar, this was granular, but the texture was almost sandy. It had a very earthy taste, very simple, almost primitive. Emily commented that it was more like a food than a dessert. It finished with a fruity taste.
Judgment: We loved the flavor that opened when we savored a piece of this bar, but we were put off by the grittiness.
Ingredient %: 13 g fat, 6 g sugar. Ingredients: cacao beans and cane sugar
Certifications and claims: organic direct trade, non gmo, gluten free, dairy soy and vegan free
Price: $7.50 for 2.5 oz.
Other notes: the packaging of this bar is similar to that of the Taza Dominican bar. It is also made in Somerville. The package makes note that Taza is the first U.S. chocolate maker to source certified USDA organic cacao from Haiti.
Alter Eco, “dark blackout” 85% dark chocolate, from Peru.
Color: quite dark. Aroma: strong and vegetal, reminiscent of tobacco. Snap: crisp.
Savoring notes: The flavor was very slow to open – perhaps because it had less sugar. The taste was a little acidic. The texture was smooth, waxy at the start. It had a chalky, “sere” finish.
Judgment: Meh. We didn’t care for this chocolate very much.
Ingredient %: 22 g fat, 6 g sugar. Ingredients: cacao beans, cocoa butter, raw sugar, vanilla beans
Certifications: USDA Organic, Fair trade, gluten free, non gmo.
Price: $3.99 for 2.82 oz.
Other notes: packaging is the least glossy of all – very recycled looking. There is a lot of comment on the inside of the packaging about their mission: sustainability, replacing coca crops with cacao crops and the importance of cocoa cooperatives and a Carbon Zero reforestation project, along with photographs of people who are presumably cacao farmers. Clearly the intent is to let you know that by buying this chocolate you are doing good. Too bad we didn’t like the taste of it.
Last thoughts on this experience
We were all surprised by how interesting – and enjoyable – it was to use so many senses in experiencing each chocolate bar. Taking the time to savor revealed so many nuances. Emily, who prefers milk chocolate, actually enjoyed most of the bars when she took the time to smell and consider each sample and slowly let it melt in her mouth. We found ourselves with questions about the reasons for the differences in taste: what was due to how the chocolate was processed, how much was terroir, how much was the power of suggestion in packaging, how much was due to the percentage – or type – of ingredients.
There are many avenues for further investigation. For instance, we could compare a number of different chocolates sourced from one region (if we could find them). We could compare chocolates produced with different methods – for instance a variety of unconched chocolates. We could investigate the claims different companies make about bettering the lives of farmers or the environment or contributing to other good causes. How much do they actually do and contribute and how much of the lingo is an attempt to reel in the compassionate consumer by convincing them they are doing good with their consumer dollars? I look forward to exploring these ideas in future tastings with friends.
[i] Dictionary.com, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/terroir.
[ii] Leissle, Kristy, “Invisible West Africa: The Politics of Single Origin Chocolate,” Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and Culture. 2013. 13:3, pp, 22-31.
[iii] Chocolate Review, Chocolatereview.com.au, accessed May 9, 2017.
[iv] Sylla, Ndongo S., The Fair Trade Scandal: Marketing Poverty to Benefit the Rich. 2014. Athens, Ohio University Press.
[v] Martin, Carla D. and Kathryn E. Sampek, The Bitter and Sweet of Chocolate in Europe. Doi: 10.18030/SOCIO.HU.2015EN.37.
[vi] Guthman, Julie, “Fast Food/Organic Food: Reflexive Tastes and the Making of “Yuppie Chow” in Counihan, Carole and Penny van Esterik, ed., Food and Culture. 2013. New York: Routledge.
[vii] Williams, Pan and Jim Eber, Raising the Bar: The Future of Fine Chocolate. 2012. Vancouver, BC: Wilmor Publishing Corporation.
[viii] Stuckey, Barb, “How the Pros Taste,” in Taste What You’re Missing: The Passionate Eater’s Guide to Why Good Food Tastes Good. 2012. New York: Free Press.
[ix] Mirriam Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sere, Accessed May 9, 2017.