Systems Analysis and Design (SAD) is an exciting, active field in which analysts continually learn new techniques and approaches to develop systems more effectively and efficiently. In business, SAD refers to the process of examining a business situation with the intent of improving it through better procedures and methods. System analysis and design relates to shaping organizations, improving performance and achieving objectives for profitability and growth. The emphasis is on systems in action, the relationships among subsystems and their contribution to meeting a common goal. Systems development can generally be thought of as having two major components: Systems analysis and Systems design. System design is the process of planning a new business system or one to replace or complement an existing system.
System analysis is the process of gathering and interpreting facts, diagnosing problems, and using the information to recommend improvements to the system. This is the job of the systems analyst. A system is orderly grouping of interdependent components linked together according to a plan to achieve a specific objective. Its main characteristic are organization, interaction, interdependence, integration and a central objective. To construct a system, system analyst must consider its elements- input and output, processors, control, feedback, and environment. Systems are classified as physical or abstract, open or closed, and man-made information systems. A system may be schematic, static or dynamic. An information system is an open system that allows inputs and facilitates interaction with the user. The main characteristic of an open system are input from outside, processing, output, operation in cycles through feedback and differentiation.
Organizations are complex systems that consist of interrelated and interlocking subsystems. Changes in one part of the system have both anticipated and unanticipated consequences in other parts of the system. The systems approval is a way of thinking about the analysis and design of computer based applications. It provides a framework for visualizing the organizational and environmental factors that operate on a system. When a computer is introduced into an organization, various functions’ and dysfunction’s operate on the user as well as on the organization. Among the positive consequences are improved performance and a feeling of achievement with quality information. Among the unanticipated consequences might be a possible threat to employee’s job, a decreased morale of personnel due to back of involvement and a feeling of intimidation by users due to computer illiteracy. The analyst’s role is to remove such fears and make the system a success.
After completion of learning of System Analysis and Design, we will be able to explain the phases in systems analysis and design, demonstrate the appropriate use of software to illustrate the SAD phases and models, build SAD modelling using various techniques, demonstrate the appropriate systems architecture and user interface design and evaluate the systems implementation methods and maintenance management in SAD.
As a conclusion, SAD is the process of developing and maintaining an information system. People will eventually apply the skills on the job in a business environment.
System analysis and design (SAD) is an exciting, active field in which analysts continually learn new techniques and approaches to develop systems more effectively and efficiently. System analysis and design consists of four major phases and they are the planning phase, the analysis phase, the design phase and the implementation phase.
The planning phase is the fundamental two-step process of understanding why an information system should be developed and creating a plan for how the project team will develop it. The deliverables from this phase is the project plan. The analysis phase answers the questions of who will use the system, what the system will do, and where and when it will be used. A system proposal is the deliverable of this phase. The design phase decides how the system will operate. The final stage is the implementation phase, during which the system is actually built or purchased in the case of packaged software design.
The system development life cycle (SDLC) is the process of understanding how information system can support business needs, designing the system, building it, and delivering it to users.
The system analyst plays a key role in information systems development projects. The system analyst assists and guides the project team so that the team develops the right system in an effective way. System analysts also identify the needs of the organization and design systems to implement those changes. Analysts must have the technical skills to understand the organizations existing technical environment, the new systems technology foundation, and the way in which both can fit into an integrated solution. Often, analysts need to communicate effectively, one-to-one with users and business managers and with programmers.
In many ways building an information system is like building a house. It starts with a basic idea, which is then transformed into a simple drawing that is shown to the customer until the customer agrees about what he or she wants. A set of blue prints is then designed that presents much detailed information about the system to be developed.
The SLDC has a similar set of four fundamental phases: planning, analysis, design, and implementation. (Dennis, Wixom, Roth, 2009, p10)
The planning phase is the fundamental process of understanding why an information system should be built and determining how the project team will go about building it. It has two steps: project initiation and project management. During project initiation, the system's business value to the organization is identified – how it will lower cost or increase revenues. The feasibility analysis examines key aspects of the proposed project like:- technical feasibility ( can we build it), the economic feasibility (will it provide business value) and the organizational feasibility ( if we build it will it be used). The system request