This is a guide how to write references intended for reference lists formatted according to the Harvard style for various documents.
Books with one Author
Include (if available): author’s last name and first name; year of publication; title; edition (if not 1st); place of publication and publisher.
Bryman, Alan. 2008. Social research methods. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Books with two or more Authors
Fabozzi, Frank J., Modigliani, Franco and Jones, Frank J. 2010. Foundations of financial markets and institutions. 4th ed. Boston: Prentice Hall.
Books that have editors (Anthologies)
For edited books include (ed.) or (eds.) between the name of the editor and year of publication - as in the example.
Allen, Jeffner and Young, Iris Marion (eds.). 1989. The thinking muse: feminism and modern French philosophy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
The same information should be provided as for printed books, see examples above. For books that have been read or downloaded from a library website or bookshop you should add the information that it is an e-book at the end of the reference.
Bowen, Natasha K. and Guo, Shenyang. 2012. Structural equation modeling. New York: Oxford University Press. E-book.
Some books whose copyright have expired are sometimes freely available on the internet (They are in the public domain.). In those cases you should add the complete URL (http ://....) or the link provided by the publisher and your date of access, the date you downloaded/read the book.
It is allowed, and sometimes recommended to give the URL to the site, e.g. http://books.google.se/, rather than a very long URL that points directly to the book.
Smith, Daniel. 1902. Memory of a tree festival. Hamburg: Sommer Publishing. http://www.treesandplantsmemoriesinsummer (Accessed 2012-05-21).
Strindberg, August. 1912. Three plays: countess Julie; the Outlaw; the Stronger. Boston: International pocket library. http://books.google.se/ (Accessed 2012-05-21).
Include (if available): Last name(s) and first name(s) of author(s) of book chapter. Year of publication. Title of book chapter. In first and family name(s) of editor(s) and ed(s) in brackets. Title of book. Edition (if not 1:st). Place of publication: publisher, page numbers of chapter.
Malmberg, Anders. 2003. Beyond the cluster: local milieus and global connections. In Jamie Peck and Henry Wai-chung Yeung (eds.). Remaking the Global Economy. London: Sage Publications, 145-162.
Include (if available): Last name(s) and first name(s) of author(s). Year of publication. Title of article. Journal name Volume (issue): page numbers of article.
Lundmark, Linda. 2005. Economic restructuring into tourism in the Swedish mountain range. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 5 (1): 23–45.
Graham, Elspeth and Boyle, Paul. 2001. Editorial introduction:(re)theorising population geography: mapping the unfamiliar. International Journal of Population Geography 7 (6): 389-394.
Electronic Journal Articles
Same information included as for journal articles (see example above) and a DOI-number. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is used to uniquely identify an object such as an electronic article. DOI-numbers are permanent, which makes it possible to easily locate articles even if the URL of the article has changed. Articles are assigned DOI-numbers by major academic publishers. If there is no DOI-number you should give the URL-link of the article and in some cases access date (mainly articles that are freely available on the internet). The publisher often states how to write the reference.
Lundmark, Linda. 2005. Economic restructuring into tourism in the Swedish mountain range. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 5 (1): 23–45. doi: 10.1080/15022250510014273.
Larsen, James E. and Blair, John P. 2009. The importance of police performance as a determinant of satisfaction with police. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration 1 (1): 1-10. http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajeba/ajeba111-10.pdf (Accessed 2010-09-29).
Include (if available): author of article. Year of publication. Title of article. Name of paper or magazine. Day and month of the article
Jowit, Juliette. 2010. Corporate lobbying is blocking food reforms, senior UN official warns. Guardian. 22 September.
Newspaper articles on the web
Same informaton as for a printed article (see above) and URL of article and date of access in brackets. If the URL is very long it could be sufficient to use the URL of the newspaper e.g http://www.time.com/time/.
Jowit, Juliette. 2010. Corporate lobbying is blocking food reforms, senior UN official warns. Guardian. 22 September. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/sep/22/food-firms-lobbying-samuel-jutzi (Accessed 2010-09-30).
Web Pages, Blogs and Twitter
Include (if available): author, organization, authority or company. Last update of web page (year). Title of document or page. Name of web site or owner of web site. Complete URL (http://.....) (Access date).
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2010. Health: OECD says governments must fight fat. http://www.oecd.org/document/35/0,3343,en_21571361_44315115_46064099_1_1_1_1,00.html
For blog entries and twitter messages state day and month of post:
Enever, Janet. 2015. A tentative view on primary language education policy in India. Forskarbloggen [Blog]. 7 March. http://blogg.umu.se/forskarbloggen/2015/03/a-tentative-view-on-primary-language-education-policy-in-india/ (Accessed 2015-08-14).
Fällström, Anders. 2015. Fewer topics in greater depth. #mathematics #Math Singapore math skills add up in the West http://cnb.cx/1M3BgPX. [Twitter]. 15 July. https://twitter.com/hyperconvex/status/621212215006392320 (Accessed 2015-08-14).
For articles/entries in online encyclopedias include (if available): author of article, year of publication, title of article, name of encyclopedia; complete URL (http://.....) and date of access. If there is no author, use the title of the entry or article first.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. 2010. Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/142824/Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease (Accessed 2010-10-30).
Include information about university of graduation and title of degree.
Eckerberg, Katarina. 1987. Environmental protection in Swedish forestry: a study of the implementation process. Ph.D. diss., Umeå University.
Landström, Mats. 2009. Two essays on Central Bank independence reforms. Lic. diss., Umeå University.
A typical referens to an electronically published thesis:
Abramowicz, Konrad. 2011. Numerical analysis for random processes and fields and related design problems. Diss. (Comprehensive summary), Umeå University. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-46156 (Accessed 12-01-30).
Lectures/presentations at conferences and seminars are published in anthologies called proceedings. Title, year and city of conference are to be included if known. Individual contributions to conference proceedings, if published in their totality (not abstract only) are treated as chapters in books.
Hall, C. Michael. 2007. North-south perspectives on tourism, regional development and peripheral areas. In Dieter K. Müller and Bruno Jansson (eds.), Tourism in peripheries : perspectives from the north and south, 19-38. Perspectives on tourism in Nordic and other peripheral areas, 2004, Umeå. Wallingford: CABI.
Sometimes those contributions that are only represented by abstracts in the proceedings are published in journals. You should in these cases not refere to the abstract in the proceeding but to the full article in the journal where it was published.
Illustrations (photographs, figures, diagrams, tables etc.)
Illustrations created by others are often protected by copyright. In those cases you need permission from the copyright owner before you can you use the illustrations in your text. If possible always state the creator of the illustration in the reference list.
Lennver, Anders. 2012. Night against procrastination [Photography]. http://www.ub.umu.se/nightagainstprocrastion/ (Accessed 2016-04-05).
State the name of the illustrator if different than the author of the work. If available also provide page number of the illustration:
Hazel, Edward. 2015. Prague by day [Photography]. In S. Johnson. Czech photography in the twenty-first century. Prague: Autumn Publishing, 32.
If you have viewed an image of a work of art online, you should reference it as an online image, regardless of the original medium. If possible state the name of the artist and the collection:
Turner, Joseph. 1839. The Fighting Temeraire [Oil painting]. The National Gallery [online]. www. nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/josephmallord-william-turner-the-fightingtemeraire (Accessed 2016-04-05).
Personal communication includes more informal sources: e.g. letters, e-mails, phone calls or conversations. Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted, and a copy retained for reference. If you have promised an interviewee anonymity you must keep that promise. You will find more information about rules and guidelines for research at CODEX. http://www.codex.uu.se/en/index.shtml
Please note that personal communication is sometimes not included in the reference list as the sources normally are not traceable. In those cases information about personal communication are provided only in the footnotes Check with your teacher/supervisor if you are uncertain!
A reference to personal communication should include as much information as possible; name, profession/position, year, details of personal communication; date (day and month)
Svensson, Anna; student at Umeå university. 2010. Interview 11 May.
Informant 1: Grammar school, Umeå. 2010. 12 boys and 12 girls, individual interviews 9 May.
Smith, Veronica; Professor at the department of physics, Umeå University. 2010. Northern lights, lecture 12 March.
Please note that e-mail addresses belonging to individuals should only be provided if the owner has given permission.
Lee, Oscar. 2008. E-mail 13 May. < firstname.lastname@example.org >.
Title. Year. Transmitting organisation/channel. Date and time of transmission. URL.
Part of a series:
Antikrundan. Säsong 26, avsnitt 10. 2015. Sveriges television, svt1, 12 mars. http://www.svtplay.se/video/2750826
TV-program from UR-play:
Makt och maktlöshet. 2015. UR Play, Kunskapskanalen. 9 april, 15:30. http://urplay.se/Produkter/181494-Var-samiska-kamp-Makt-och-maktloshet
TV-program via UR access:
UR Samtiden - Hur kan utåtagerande barn bemötas? 2011. Kunskapskanalen. http://uraccess.se/products/162607
UR Samtiden - Samiska veckan 2015: Språkliga förbud. 2015. Kunskapskanalen. 14 april, kl. 16:00. http://uraccess.se/products/188771
Include if available: Last and first names of speaker or equivalent. Year of speech. Title of speech. [online]. Publisher. Complete URL (http://...) and date of access.
If the publisher tells you how to site the lecture, use their suggested reference and just check to see that it conforms to the Harvard rules. See for example Henry Stewart Talks (available from our page for Audiovisual media).
a) as lecture/speech:
Satyarthi, Kailash. 2015. How to make peace? Get angry. [online]. TED talks. http://www.ted.com/talks/kailash_satyarthi_how_to_make_peace_get_angry (Accessed: 2015-05-03).
b) as online video:
TED talks. 2015, mars. How to make peace? Get angry. [online]. [Accessed: 2015-04-14] http://www.ted.com/talks/kailash_satyarthi_how_to_make_peace_get_angry
HarvardBusiness. 2008. Innovate Like Google. [online]. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QOioQxtJ4gI (Accessed: 2014-05-05).
To cite a source from a secondary source is generally to be avoided, since you are expected to have read the works you cite. If a primary source (original source) is not available you may use secondary sources. Only information about the secondary source would appear in the reference list. In the example below you have read Bob Smith's book "Democracy" published 1981 where he on page 72 cites Tom Small's book "Civil rights" published 1832:
Smith, Bob. 1981. Civil rights. Berlin: Herbst Verlag.
This page provides information from the NTNU University Library to help you when you need to use the Harvard style.
Norsk versjon: Bruke referansestilen Harvard
See also "Academic Writing" and Using and citing sources
The Harvard style #
Are you writing a paper for which you need help on using the Harvard style?
The Harvard style is used in the social sciences, technology and natural sciences. Check which reference style your department recommends before you begin writing your paper.
- APA style is used in the social sciences, arts and humanities.
- Chicago style is used in the social sciences, arts and humanities.
- Vancouver style is used in medicine and natural science, and sometimes in technology.
Examples of using the Harvard style in a reference list #
The examples show how to write references in-text and in reference lists based on what kind of source you are citing.
Harvard style in English for EndNote #
If you are using EndNote to manage your references, the default Harvard style in EndNote has author names in uppercase (e.g. ARMSTRONG). The NTNU University Library has made its own English NTNU Harvard style in lowercase (e.g. Armstrong).
Download the NTNU Harvard style
Reference list in Harvard style #
When writing a reference list in Harvard style:
- Arrange the list alphabetically by author’s surname
- Sort the Swedish letters ä - ö - å like you sort the Norwegian letters æ - ø - å
- Start the reference list on a new page. Use “Reference list” or “Literature list” as the heading.
- Include the edition if it is specified in the publication. You need not add the date of printing if this is just a reprint of the current edition. If it is the first edition, do not write the edition.
- If a reference has more than 3 authors, only write the first author’s surname followed by “et al.”
Personal communication in Harvard style #
In the Harvard style, personal communication should not be included in the reference list, if the information cannot be gathered again. Personal communications are conversations, e-mails, phone calls, etc. Remember to ask approval from the partner of the conversation before citing him/her. You
can cite personal communication in the text. You should include the name and title of your conversation partner, the date of communication and the context in which the communication took place.
The Harvard style in-text #
When using the Harvard style in-text, you must remember:
- If a reference has more than 3 authors, only write the first author’s surname followed by “et al.”
- Multiple publications by the same author published the same year are distinguished by a, b, c etc. after the year: Hansen (1988a) and Hansen (1988b).
- Multiple publications by different authors are sorted alphabetically by author’s surname. Example: (Hansen, 1988a; Olsen, 2001)
- When a work has no identifiable author, use the title. Example: (Et enklere og mer rettferdig inntektssystem, 1996)
- When a work has no identifiable release date, use no date. Example: (Trondheim kunstmuseum, no date).
- When using secondary sources, name your source and cite the secondary reference. Example: Johnson and Peters’ studies (1970, as cited in Wagner 1982)…
- Use page numbers when:
- it is a direct quote
- if you use ideas from a specific page/specific pages in a work
Example: Researchers such as Warwick (1992), Taylor and Smith (1994) and King et al. (1997) found that…
Direct citations shorter than 2-3 lines are integrated in the text and are clearly marked with quotes. Citations longer than 2-3 lines should be in a separate indented paragraph, without quotes.
- Short citation: “Sitering vil si ordrett gjengivelse av andres arbeider. Da skal det være ordrett, og ikke misbrukt i forhold til den sammenheng sitatet brukes i” (Stene, 1999, p. 125).
- The name of the author is integrated in the paragraph: Stene (1999, p. 125) defines citation as: “Sitering vil si ordrett gjengivelse av andres arbeider. Da skal det være ordrett, og ikke misbrukt i forhold til den sammenhengen sitatet brukes i”.
- Source with many authors: “Ved direkte sitater skal henvisningen gi informasjon om forfatter, årstall og sidetall” (Furseth and Everett, 1997, p. 141).
Indirect citation - paraphrases #
A paraphrase is a reformulation of the original text.
Example: Furseth and Everett (1997) maintain that the primary reason behind the use of references and bibliographies is the ideal of research as a collective endeavour. Research should be verifiable, and those reading your work should be able to find those sources your material is based upon.
More on the Harvard style #
There is no official manual for the Harvard style. Information on how you write references in-text and in a reference list with the Harvard style is based on Pears and Shields (2016).
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 10th ed. London: Palgrave.