How To Bibliography Website Chicago Style

Chicago Format Examples (16th Edition)

Carefully follow these examples when compiling and formatting both your in-text citations and bibliography in order to avoid losing marks for citing incorrectly.

I. Notes-Bibliography System

Each example in this section includes a numbered footnote, a shortened form of the note, and a corresponding bibliography entry.

Book with single author or editor:


  • Full Chicago citation in a footnote:

  • 5. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99-100.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 5. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Pollan, Michael, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

Book with multiple authors:

For a book with two authors, note that only the first-listed name is inverted in the bibliography entry.


  • Full Chicago style citation in a footnote:

  • 3. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 3. Ward and Burns, War, 52.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.

Print journal article:


  • Full Chicago citation in a footnote:

  • 89. Walter Blair, “Americanized Comic Braggarts,” Critical Inquiry 4, no. 2 (1977): 331-32.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 89. Blair, “Americanized Comic Braggarts,” 335.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Blair, Walter. “Americanized Comic Braggarts.” Critical Inquiry 4, no. 2 (1977): 331-49.

Online journal article:

When citing electronic sources consulted online, the Chicago style citation manual recommends including an electronic resource identifier, where possible, to lead your reader directly to the source.

A URL is a uniform resource locator, which directs the reader straight to the online source. When using a URL, simply copy the address from your browser’s address bar when viewing the article. You must include the source’s full publication information as well.


  • Full Chicago style citation in a footnote:

  • 12. Wilfried Karmaus and John F. Riebow, “Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls,” Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May 2004): 645, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3435987.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 12. Karmaus and Riebow, “Storage of Serum,” 645.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Karmaus, Wilfried, and John F. Riebow. “Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls.” Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May 2004): 643-647. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3435987.

DOI:

A DOI is a digital object identifier; a unique and permanent name assigned to a piece of intellectual property, such as a journal article, in any medium in which it is published. If it is available, a DOI is preferable to an ISBN.


  • Full Chicago citation in a footnote:

  • 3. William J. Novak, “The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State,” American Historical Review 113 (June 2008): 758, doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 3. Novak, “Myth,” 770.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Novak, William J. “The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State,” American Historical Review 113 (June 2008): 752-72. doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

II. Author-Date System:

Each example in this section includes a Chicago style in-text citation and a corresponding reference list entry.

Article with single author or editor, author mentioned in text:


  • In-text citation:

  • Here we empirically demonstrate that workers’ and regulatory agents’ understandings of discrimination and legality emerge not only in the shadow of the law but also, as Albiston (2005) suggests…

  • Reference list entry:

  • Albiston, Catherine R. 2005. “Bargaining in the Shadow of Social Institutions: Competing Discourses and Social Change in the Workplace Mobilization of Civil Rights.” Law and Society Review 39 (1): 11-47.

Article with multiple authors, author not mentioned in text:


  • Chicago in-text citation:

  • As legal observers point out, much dispute resolution transpires outside the courtroom but in the “shadow of the law” (Mnookin and Kornhauser 1979)...

  • Reference list entry:

  • Mnookin, Robert, and Lewis Kornhauser. 1979. “Bargaining in the Shadow of the Law: The Case of Divorce.” Yale Law Journal 88 (5): 950-97.

*For a work with four or more authors, include all the authors in the reference list entry. However, in the in-text citation you need only cite the last name of the first-listed author, followed by et al. (e.g. Barnes et al. 2008, 118-19)

For more examples, see chapters 14 and 15 of the Chicago style citation handbook: The Chicago Manual of Style (Sixteenth Edition), or find more information available here.

Web Sources

Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-03-09 12:49:13

General Model for Citing Web Sources in Chicago Style

Titles for Websites, Blogs, and Social Media: The title of a website that is analogous to a traditionally printed work but does not have (and never had) a printed counterpart can be treated like titles of other websites. For example, Wikipedia can be treated as a website, rather than as a conventional encyclopedia. This is a departure from previous editions of CMOS.

Titles of websites should follow headline-style capitalization and are usually set in roman. There are, however, some exceptions: titles of blogs are set in italics and titles of books, journals, television shows, movies, and other types of works should be treated the same whether cited as a print version or an online version. For example, when citing the website of the television news station CNN, the title maintains italics. Furthermore, in cases such as this, when a website does not have a distinctive title, it can be cited based on the entity responsible for the website, for instance, CNN online.

Footnote or Endnote (N):

      1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Roman, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Roman. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.

Electronic Books and Books Consulted Online

Electronic books are cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a media marker at the end of the citation: Kindle edition, PDF e-book, Microsoft Reader e-book, Palm e-book, CD-ROM, etc. Books consulted online are also cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a DOI (or URL) at the end of the citation. See also Books.

Note: Stable page numbers are not always available in electronic formats; therefore, you may include the number of chapter, section, or other easily recognizable locator instead.

Weston, Anthony. A Rulebook for Arguments, Fourth ed. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2010. Kindle edition.

N:

      1. Donald Davidson, Essays on Actions and Events (Oxford: Clarendon, 2001), https://bibliotecamathom.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/essays-on-actions-and-events.pdf.

B:

Davidson, Donald, Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Clarendon, 2001. https://bibliotecamathom.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/essays-on-actions-and-events.pdf

Online Periodicals (Journal, Magazine, and Newspaper Articles)

Online periodicals are cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a DOI or URL at the end of the citation. See also Periodicals. Also keep in mind that while access dates are not required for formally published electronic sources (journal articles), they can be useful for informally published electronic sources or may be required for by some disciplines for all informally and formally published electronic sources. Access dates should be located immediately prior to the DOI or URL.

For four or more authors (in a book), list the first author in the note followed by et al. For the corresponding bibliographic entry, list all authors (up to 10).

N:

      1. Kirsi Peltonen et al. “Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health,” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, no. 11 (2010): 813-822, doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.

B:

Peltonen, Kirsi, Noora Ellonen, Helmer B. Larsen, and Karin Helweg-Larsen. “Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health.” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, no. 11 (2010): 813-822. doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.

Web Page with Known Author and Date

N:

      7. Richard G. Heck, Jr., “About the Philosophical Gourmet Report” last modified August 5, 2016. http://rgheck.frege.org/philosophy/aboutpgr.php

B:

Heck, Jr., Richard G. “About the Philosophical Gourmet Report” last modified August 5, 2016. http://rgheck.frege.org/philosophy/aboutpgr.php

Web Page with Known Date but without Known Author

N:

      8. “Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government,” CNN online, last modified January 30, 2009, http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/30/illinois.governor.quinn/.

B:

"Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government.” CNN online. Last modified January 30, 2009. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/30/illinois.governor.quinn/.

Web Page with Unknown Publication Date and Author

N:

      9. “Band,” Casa de Calexico, accessed October 27, 2017. http://www.casadecalexico.com/band.

B:

“Band.” Casa de Calexico. Accessed October 27, 2017. http://www.casadecalexico.com/band.

Blog

Blog titles should be set in italics and blog entries should be set in quotation marks. Generally, blog entries and comments are cited only as notes. If you frequently cite a blog, however, then you may choose to include it in your bibliography. Note: if the word “blog” is included in the title of the blog, there is no need to repeat it in parentheses after that title.

N:

       1. J. Robert Lennon, “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010 (8:39 a.m.), http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.

   2. Susan Woodring, September 17, 2010 (3:40 a.m.), comment on J. Robert Lennon, “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010 (8:39 a.m.), http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.

Podcast

Note: If the word “podcast” is included in the title of the podcast, there is no need to repeat it enclosed in commas after that title. “Podcast audio” is used below, then, as an example placeholder and would not necessarily be required for this specific example.

N:

      1. Sean Cole and Ira Glass, “622: Who You Gonna Call?,” August 4, 2017, in This American Life, produced by WBEZ, podcast, MP3 audio,1:00:27, accessed October 31, 2017, https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/622/who-you-gonna-call.

B:

Cole, Sean and Ira Glass. “622: Who You Gonna Call?.” Produced by WBEZ. This American Life. August 4, 2017. Podcast, MP3 audio,1:00:27. accessed October 31, 2017. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/622/who-you-gonna-call.

Blank Form for Online Multimedia

N:

      1. Firstname Lastname of Performer, Writer or Creator, Title of Text, indication of format/medium, running time, publication date, URL.

B:

Lastname, Firstname of Performer, Writer or Creator. Title of Text. Indication of Medium, Running Time. Publication Date. URL.

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