Essay on water pollution (free to read).
Essay on water pollution (free to read).
Agents of water pollution
Industry is one of the greatest source of pollution, accounting for more than half the volume of all water pollution and for the most deadly pollutants. Some manufacturing facilities use huge quantities of freshwater to carry away wastes of many kinds. The waste-bearing water, or effluent, is discharged into streams, lakes, or oceans, which in turn disperse the polluting substances. The pollutants include grit, asbestos, phosphates and nitrates, mercury, lead, caustic soda and other sodium compounds, sulphur and sulphuric acid, oils, and petrochemicals.
In addition, numerous manufacturing plants pour out undiluted corrosives, poisons, and other noxious by-products. The construction industry discharges slurries of gypsum, cement, abrasives, metals, and poisonous solvents. Another pervasive group of contaminants entering food chains isthe Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) compounds, components of lubricants, plastic wrappers, and adhesives. In yet another instance of pollution, hot water discharged by factories and power plants causes so-called thermal pollution by increasing water temperatures. Such increases change the level of oxygen dissolved in a body of water, thereby disrupting the water’s ecological balance, killing off some plant and animal species while encouraging the overgrowth of others.
Towns and municipalities are also major sources of water pollution. In many public water systems, pollution exceeds safe levels. One reason for this is that much groundwater has been contaminated by wastes pumped underground for disposal or by seepage from surface water. When contamination reaches underground water tables, it is difficult to correct and spreads over wide areas. In addition, many U.S. communities discharge untreated or only partially treated sewage into the waterways, threatening the health of their own and neighboring populations.
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Along with domestic wastes, sewage carries industrial contaminants and a growing tonnage of paper and plastic refuse. Although thorough sewage treatment would destroy most disease-causing bacteria, the problem of the spread of viruses and viral illness remains. Additionally, most sewage treatment does not remove phosphorus compounds, contributed principally by detergents, which cause eutrophication of lakes and ponds. Excreted drugs and household chemicals also are not removed by present municipal treatment facilities, and can be recycled into the drinking water supply.
Rain drainage is another major polluting agent because it carries such substances as highway debris (including oil and chemicals from automobile exhausts), sediments from highway and building construction, and acids and radioactive wastes from mining operations into freshwater systems as well as into the ocean. Also transported by rain runoff and by irrigation return-flow are animal wastes from farms and feedlots, a widespread source of pollutants impairing rivers and streams, groundwater, and even some coastal waters. Antibiotics, hormones, and other chemicals used to raise livestock are components of such animal wastes. Pesticide and fertilizer residues from farms also contribute to water pollution via rain drainage.
Large and small craft significantly pollute both inland and coastal waters by dumping their untreated sewage. Oil spilled accidentally or flushed from tankers and offshore rigs (900,000 metric tons annually) sullies beaches and smothers bird, fish, and plant life. In 1989 in one of die world’s worst single instances of water pollution, the Exxon Valdez spilled 11 million gallons of oil in Prince William Sound, Alaska, causing great environmental destruction. In 1997, the 22 oil spills reported worldwide involved a total of 15 million gallons (57 million liters) of oil. In addition to its direct damage to wildlife, oil takes up fat- soluble poisons like DDT, allowing them to be concentrated in organisms that ingest the oil-contaminated water; thus, such poisons enter the food chains leading to sea mammals and people.
Both DDT, which has been banned in the United States since 1972, and PCBs are manufactured in many parts of the world and are now widespread in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In addition, tarry oil residues are encountered throughout the Atlantic, as are Styrofoam and other plastic rubbish. Plastic bits litter sections of the Pacific as far north as Amchitka Island near Alaska. Garbage, solid industrial wastes, and sludge formed in sewage treatment, all commonly dumped into oceans, are other marine pollutants found worldwide, especially along coastal areas.
Dangers of Water Pollution:
Virtually all water pollutants are hazardous to humans as well as lesser species; sodium is implicated in cardiovascular disease, nitrates in blood disorders. Mercury and lead can cause nervous disorders. Some contaminants are carcinogens. DDT is toxic to humans and can alter chromosomes. PCBs cause liver and nerve damage^ skin eruptions, vomiting, fever, diarrhoea, and foetal abnormalities.
Dysentery, salmonellas, Cryptosporidium, and hepatitis are among the maladies transmitted by sewage in drinking and bathing water. In the United States, beaches along coasts, riverbanks, and lakeshores have been ruined for bathers by industrial wastes, municipal sewage, and medical waste. Water pollution is an even greater problem in the Third World, where millions of people obtain water for drinking and sanitation from unprotected streams and ponds that are contaminated with human waste. This type of contamination has been estimated to cause more than 3 million deaths annually from diarrhoea in Third World countries, most of them children.
We are providing many paragraphs, long essay in very simple language with the boundaries of different words here. Here you can find Essay on Environmental Pollution in English language for students in 1000 words. In this article cover Topic : Define environmental pollution, Effects of environmental pollution on humans and animals, Air pollution and its prevention and control, Noise pollution and the steps to minimise it, Water pollution and some measures to control it, Radioactive pollution and number of ways to control it and Initiatives taken by the government to control pollution.
Today, the biggest threat to humanity on this planet is environmental pollution. It is growing with every passing year. This is an issue which bothers us financially, physically and socially. Environment pollution is being linked to some deadly diseases. An environmental problem which keeps worsening every day requires addressing so that its harmful effects on humans as well as on the planet can be improved.
The effects of environmental pollution on humans are primarily physical, but can change for long periods in neuro-love. The most well known problems are respiratory, as an allergy, asthma, eye irritation and nasal pathways or other forms of respiratory infection. Environmental pollution also affects the animals while harming their living environment, making them poisonous to live in. Acid rain can change the structure of the rivers and oceans, making them poisonous for the fish, and an important amount of ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere can cause lung problems to all animals.
In essence, environmental pollution, almost exclusively created by human activities, has a negative effect on the ecosystem, eliminating its critical level and having even more negative effects on the upper layers. Due to pollution, problems like ozone depletion, global warming, greenhouse effect, melting of glaciers etc have arisen. There are five types of pollution in environmental pollution; Air, noise, water, soil and radioactive pollution etc.
Essay Air pollution
Air pollution is a gas (or spreads through a liquid or solid-normal air) to release enough amounts to damage the health of people or other animals, to kill plants or to grow them properly Preventing air pollution can be defined as the presence of any solid, liquid or gaseous matter in which atmospheric noise and radioactive radiation are involved. Can, which can be either directly or indirectly harmful to human or other organisms, plants, property or interfere with the normal environment, processes. Air Pollution is a result of industrial and some domestic activity; One continuous use of fossil fuels in power plants, industries, transport, mining, construction of buildings etc.; Some major diseases caused by air pollution were caused by air pollution: bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, tuberculosis and pneumonia.
There are air pollution prevention and control measures
Good-designed equipment and fired fuels should be used in homes and industries
- Renewable and non polluting sources of energy such as solar energy, wind power etc. should be used
- Long fireplace should be installed in factories
- More trees should be planted on roads and houses.
Essay on Noise pollution
Noise is one of the most comprehensive pollutants by noise, 'sound without price' or 'no noise which is unwanted by the recipient' by shouting stones and crossing the cross, steel forgings, loudspeakers, heavy carriage vehicles, railway and airports Increased irritability and increase in blood pressure, anger, decrease in work efficiency, loss of hearing which may be temporary before but noise is permanent in stress TI. The noise level is measured in terms of decibels (DB)
Noise pollution is a growing problem, all human activities contribute to various quantities of noise pollution. The sources of noise pollution are numerous and are indoor or outside. Indoor sources include noise generated by radio, television, generators, electric fans, air coolers, air conditioners, different home appliances and family struggles.
External sources of noise pollution include indirect use of activities such as loudspeakers, industrial activities, automobile, rail traffic, airplanes and markets, religious, social and cultural activities, sports and political rallies. Noise pollution is very annoying and upset. The noise makes the delicate disturbance, the cause of hypertension (hypertension), emotional problems such as aggression, mental depression and annoyance noise pollution affect the efficiency and performance of individuals.
The following steps can be taken to control or reduce noise pollution
- Road traffic noise can be reduced due to better design and proper maintenance of vehicles.
- Industrial noise can be reduced by generating sound-proofing equipment and noise-producing areas.
- Electricity equipment, loud music and land movers, public works using loudspeakers etc. should not be allowed in the night
- The use of horns, alarms, refrigeration units etc. is to be restricted. Fire crackers are used for noise and air pollution should be restricted.
- A green belt of trees is a skilled noise absorber.
- Use of a strong speaker or public address system will not be used at night (from 10:00 to 6:00 to 6:00), except for closed-premises for communication located in the vicinity e.g. Auditoriums, conference rooms, community hall and banquet hall
- If a person can exceed the noise level by ambient noise standards by 10 dB (A) or more given in the respective column against any area / region, then register the complaint to the Authority.
Essay on Water Pollution
Water pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems. Due to many human activities like water, pollution, industrial, agricultural and domestic. Our water is well polluted with industrial wastes with human and animal dishes, along with agricultural, poisonous substances and sewage water running bin Laden with extra fertilizers and pesticides. Natural source of water pollution, soil erosion, punching of minerals from rocks and destroying organic decay of organic matter
Water pollution is a major source of water borne diseases and other health problems. Due to the deterioration brought from the agricultural areas and the discharge of untreated or partially treated sewage and industrial wastes, disposal of fly ash or solid waste in the water body, there are serious problems of water pollution. Because of the water's water, the penetration of light in the water decreases due to water disturbances, which reduces photosynthesis by water aquatic plants.
The following measures can be adopted to control water pollution
- The need for water should be reduced by changing the techniques involved.
- Treatment should be reused with or without water.
- Recycling of water should be done to the maximum extent after treatment.
- The amount of waste water discharge should be reduced.
The next source of environmental pollution is soil, it is due to the presence of human-made chemicals and other changes in natural soil. This type of contamination usually arises to filter out the waste from the polluted surface water source, oil and fuel dumping, direct discharge of industrial effluents in the soil, landfills etc. in the soil. The most common chemicals involved in soil pollution: Petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, insecticides, lead and other heavy metals are very dangerous aspects of soil pollution because it affects the region and the fertility and food production of the country.
It is a serious concern, which can be said to improve the use of healthy pesticides to improve the quality of fertility and soil and thus, reducing the damage, to control the pollution of the soil, plastic bags Is necessary to prevent the use of. Sewerage should be used as a fertilizer before and should be done properly as landfill. Prior to disposal, biomedical waste should be treated properly to remove hazardous substances. Biomedical waste should be collected separately and burnt in proper incinerator.
Essay Radioactive pollution
Radioactive pollution is defined as the physical pollution of air, water, and other radioactive materials. The ability of some materials to radiate protons, gamma rays and electrons by its nucleus is known as radioactive, proton is called alpha particle And electrons are also known as beta particles. Those materials are known as radioactive elements, the radiation of the environment can be from different sources and can be natural or man-made.
Natural radiation is also known as the background radiation, in this, the cosmic rays are included and from the space reaches the surface of the Earth. It includes radioactive elements such as radium, uranium, thorium, radon, potassium and carbon. These are in rock, soil, and water; Man-made radiation includes mining and refinement of plutonium and thorium. Nuclear weapons production and explosion include nuclear fuel, power plants and radioactive isotopes.
Low levels of radiation risk on a small part of the body can affect only the cell membrane and can cause light skin irritation. Other immediate effects of the short duration of atomic radiation are wounds caused by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of hair and nails, bleeding under the skin. The risk of high radiation is quite acute toxicity and can kill the victim quickly, the victim dies in life force and dies from anemia, infection and bleeding.
Radioactive pollution can be controlled in many ways, including the prevention of leakage from radioactive materials including nuclear reactors, industries and laboratories. Power plants should follow the safe instructions. Protective clothing should be worn by workers working in nuclear plants.
Government initiatives to control pollution
The Indian government has been a deep supervisor of the impact on the environment and has been at the forefront to protect and protect it. The Ministry of Environment and Forests is actively involved in monitoring and preparing ways to maintain Indian natural beauty and maintain a healthy ecological balance. With the promotion of organic farming strict industrial wastewater treatment regulations, the government has provided facilities and policies to protect our nature.
To tackle environmental pollution, several initiatives have been taken by the government at international and national level. United Nations Conference on Human Environment (UNEP) was called to study the deeper change in the relationship between human and its environment in view of modern scientific and technological advances.
In the last few years, the Indian government has taken various measures in response to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). 'National Action Plan on Climate Change and Low Carbon Strategies for Inclusive Development' has been started.
The World Health Organization has established an international network for monitoring and studying global air pollution and preparing possible solutions. India has been working on the issue of its greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for many years. Estimated average, per person GHG emissions in 2020 are likely to be lower compared to the developed countries of India.
Never less, India is intensely aware of the need to solve the issue of climate change and, therefore, the Government of India has a strong national action plan on climate change (NAPCC), which is a mixture of both mitigation and adaptation measures.
India has taken several initiatives to deal with climate change in the field of science and research, policy development, policy implementation, international cooperation and forestry. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has taken several positive steps to reduce environmental pollution. The Government of India has passed some important environmental laws ie Water (Pollution Control and Control) Act, 1974 and Air (Pollution and Prevention Control) Act, 1981.
The present government of India has taken six important environmental-friendly steps to control environmental pollution. These steps include 'Swachh Bharat Abhiyan', 'Clean Ganga Mission', 'National Air Quality Index', 'Toilets before Temples', 'Mount Everest Climb', i.e. Mount Everest Cleanliness Campaign, 'Water Conservation' etc.
In order to solve the environmental problem by the industry, emphasis on pollution control for pollution prevention has seen significant changes in government policy over the last decade. Concrete efforts have been made by the government in this direction.
To make a healthy and competitive environment for sustainable industrial development in the counter, now the responsibility is to work with the industry, equipment manufacturers, academic and consulting organizations, national and international organizations etc to work in accordance with the government's policy.